The question of siting wind energy conversion systems (WECS) represents a balance between the economic, technical and social values of the user and the local citizens. The technical issues are discussed. Before addressing the technical siting issues, as well as the social and economic ones, a determination of the potential user, the application of the WECS, and the geographical location of the installation must be made. Once these three determinations have been made, the meteorological and topographical characteristics of specific candidate sites must be assessed. Some of the topographical issues discussed are the effects of siting WECS near bodies of water, near or in trees and forests, around structures and buildings, and in hilly terrain; and some of the meteorological features considered are the effects of local wind circulations, velocity profiles, local turbulence, and hazardous weather elements.
One of the objectives of the Wind characteristics Program Element (WCPE) is to identify and catalog existing meteorological data sets which might be used for model validation and for other Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) studies. A subtask of this program of identifying meteorological data sets is the identification and cataloging of field programs that have used extensive wind measuring networks. Field programs with mesoscale wind networks are identified with data sets that might be suitable for site localization techniques. 162 references.
This study was undertaken to provide a summary of wind data from nuclear power plant sites. National Weather Service archives are an immediately obvious source of wind data, but additional data sources are also available. Utility companies proposing to build nuclear power plants are required to establish on-site meteorological monitoring programs that include towers for collecting wind and temperature data for use in environmental impact assessments. These data are available for more than one hundred planned or operating nuclear power plant sites This site wind data provides a valuable addition to the existing NWS data sets, and significantly enlarges the multilevel data presently available. The wind data published through the NRC is assembled and assessed here in order to provide a supplement to existing data sets.
A summary of wind data from nuclear power plant sites is presented. National Weather Service archives are an immediately obvious source of wind data, but additional data sources are also available. Utility companies proposing to build nuclear power plants are required to establish on-site meteorological monitoring programs that include towers for collecting wind and temperature data for use in environmental impact assessments. These data are available for more than one hundred planned or operating nuclear power plant sites. A list of the sites, by state, is provided in Appendix A, while Appendix B contains an alphabetical list of the sites. This site wind data provides a valuable addition to the existing NWS data sets, and significantly enlarges the multilevel data presently available. The wind data published through the NRC is assembled and assessed here in order to provide a supplement to existing data sets.
The principal objectives of this study were (1) to assess the potential for wind energy conversion systems on a national scale, (2) identify high-potential applications for WECS, (3) define functional, performance, operational, and cost goals for WECS, (4) evaluate the impact of the wide-scale deployment of WECS on energy users, and (5) identify the institutional and non-technical problems associated with the acceptance of wind energy systems. The study concentrated on broad applications of WECS over large geographic areas encompassing the entire United States. Emphasis was placed on identifying and exploring high-aggregate energy users who have significant potential to utilize wind energy in place of other alternatives.
Information is presented concerning meteorological data and supporting analyses, gross energy consumption patterns and end-use analysis, analysis for industrial applications of wind energy conversion systems (WECS), analysis for residential applications of WECS, analysis for application of WECS to communities remote from utility grids, analysis for agricultural applications of WECS, regional evaluation of the economics of wind turbine generation to the U. S. electric utility district, impact of storage on WECS, financial analysis techniques, and system spacing.
The development of wind energy systems in the U.S. is discussed under the following headings: baseline power systems; assessment of wind potential; identification of high potential applications; electric utilities; residential application; paper industry application; agriculture application; and remote community applications.
Wind-energy measurements conducted by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, are discussed briefly. Measurement locations in northern Oahu are identified. The measurement site at Kahuku, Oahu, is described. Data obtained at the Kahuku location are summarized as daily and monthly mean velocities for August through November, 1976. Velocity duration curves for each month are also given.
The Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbine (DAWT) is one of the advanced concepts being investigated to improve the economics of wind energy conversion. The project is aimed at increasing the output and reducing the cost, the off-duty time, and the technical risk of wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The DAWT appears to be best suited to large WECS for commercial power production because it permits a significant increase in the unit power output without extending the size of rotating machinery into the range where rotor dynamics cause excessive costs.
Information on diffuser-augmented wind turbines is presented concerning the development of efficient and compact diffusers, economic analysis, and analytical demonstration of two-stage constant speed rotor concepts.