Built-environment wind turbine (BEWT) projects are wind energy projects that are constructed on, in, or near buildings, as shown below. These projects present an opportunity for distributed, low-carbon generation combined with highly visible statements on sustainability, but the BEWT niche of the wind industry is still developing and is relatively less mature than the utility-scale wind or conventional ground-based distributed wind sectors. This poster investigates the current state of the BEWT industry by reviewing available literature on BEWT projects as well as interviewing project owners on their experiences deploying and operating the technology.
Development of a Wind Plant Large-Eddy Simulation with Measurement-Driven Atmospheric Inflow: Preprint |
This paper details the development of an aeroelastic wind plant model with large-eddy simulation (LES). The chosen LES solver is the Simulator for Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) based on the OpenFOAM framework, coupled to NREL's comprehensive aeroelastic analysis tool, FAST. An atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) precursor simulation was constructed based on assessments of meteorological tower, lidar, and radar data over a 3-hour window. This precursor was tuned to the specific atmospheric conditions that occurred both prior to and during the measurement campaign, enabling capture of a night-to-day transition in the turbulent ABL. In the absence of height-varying temperature measurements, spatially averaged radar data were sufficient to characterize the atmospheric stability of the wind plant in terms of the shear profile, and near-ground temperature sensors provided a reasonable estimate of the ground heating rate describing the morning transition. A full aeroelastic simulation was then performed for a subset of turbines within the wind plant, driven by the precursor. Analysis of two turbines within the array, one directly waked by the other, demonstrated good agreement with measured time-averaged loads.
In this paper, solvability conditions for disturbance accommodating control (DAC) have been discussed and applied on wind turbine controller design in above-rated wind speed to regulate rotor speed and to mitigate turbine structural loads. DAC incorporates a predetermined waveform model and uses it as part of the state-space formulation, which is known as the internal model principle to reduce or minimize the wind disturbance effects on the outputs of the wind turbine. An asymptotically stabilizing DAC controller with disturbance impact on the wind turbine being totally canceled out can be found if certain conditions are fulfilled. Designing a rotor speed regulation controller without steady-state error is important for applying linear control methodology such as DAC on wind turbines. Therefore, solvability conditions of DAC without steady-state error are attractive and can be taken as examples when designing a multitask turbine controller. DAC controllers solved via Moore-Penrose Pseudoinverse and the Kronecker product are discussed, and solvability conditions of using them are given. Additionally, a new solvability condition based on inverting the feed-through D term is proposed for the sake of reducing computational burden in the Kronecker product. Applications of designing collective pitch and independent pitch controllers based on DAC are presented. Recommendations of designing a DAC-based wind turbine controller are given. A DAC controller motivated by the proposed solvability condition that utilizes the inverse of feed-through D term is developed to mitigate the blade flapwise once-per-revolution bending moment together with a standard proportional integral controller in the control loop to assist rotor speed regulation. Simulation studies verify the discussed solvability conditions of DAC and show the effectiveness of the proposed DAC control design methodology.
Disturbance-Adaptive Short-Term Frequency Support of a DFIG Associated With the Variable Gain Based on the ROCOF and Rotor Speed |
This paper proposes a disturbance-adaptive short-term frequency support scheme of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) that can improve the frequency-supporting capability while ensuring stable operation. In the proposed scheme, the output of the additional control loop is determined as the product of the frequency deviation and adaptive gain, which is modified depending on the rate of change of frequency (ROCOF) and rotor speed. To achieve these objectives, the adaptive gain is set to be high during the early stage of a disturbance, when the ROCOF and rotor speed are high. Until the frequency nadir (FN), the gain decreases with the ROCOF and rotor speed. After the FN, the gain decreases only with the rotor speed. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme improves the FN and maximum ROCOF while ensuring the stable operation of a DFIG under various wind conditions irrespective of the disturbance conditions by adaptively changing the control gain with the ROCOF and rotor speed, even if the wind speed decreases and a consecutive disturbance occurs.
<p>In this paper, a field test of wake steering control is presented. The field test is the result of a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Envision Energy, a smart energy management company and turbine manufacturer. In the campaign, an array of turbines within an operating commercial offshore wind farm in China have the normal yaw controller modified to implement wake steering according to a yaw control strategy. The strategy was designed using NREL wind farm models, including a computational fluid dynamics model, SOWFA, for understanding wake dynamics and an engineering model, FLORIS, for yaw control optimization. Results indicate that, within the certainty afforded by the data, the wake-steering controller was successful in increasing power capture, by amounts similar to those predicted from the models.</p>
Fishermen's Energy Atlantic City Wind Farm final report under US DOE Advanced Technology Demonstration project documents achievements developing a demonstration scale offshore wind project off the coast of New Jersey.
Many gearboxes in wind turbines do not achieve their expected design life; they do, however, commonly meet or exceed the design criteria specified in current standards in the gear, bearing, and wind turbine industry as well as third-party certification criteria. The cost of gearbox replacements and rebuilds, as well as the downtime associated with these failures, increases the cost of wind energy. In 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy established the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC). Its goals are to understand the root causes of premature gearbox failures and to improve their reliability. The GRC is examining a hypothesis that the gap between design-estimated and actual wind turbine gearbox reliability is caused by underestimation of loads, inaccurate design tools, the absence of critical elements in the design process, or insufficient testing. This report describes the recently completed tests of GRC Gearbox 3 in the National Wind Technology Center dynamometer and documents any modifications to the original test plan. In this manner, it serves as a guide for interpreting the publicly released data sets with brief analyses to illustrate the data. The primary test objective was to measure the planetary load-sharing characteristics in the same conditions as the original GRC gearbox design. If the measured load-sharing characteristics are close to the design model, the projected improvement in planetary section fatigue life and the efficacy of preloaded TRBs in mitigating the planetary bearing fatigue failure mode will have been demonstrated. Detailed analysis of that test objective will be presented in subsequent publications.
This presentation is part of a panel session at the IEEE ISGT conference on Grid Modernization Initiative projects. This segment of the panel session provides a brief overview of a Hawaii Regional Partnership project focusing grid frequency support from distributed resources on the fastest time scales.
A hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) electrical grid simulation system and method that combines a reactive divider with a variable frequency converter to better mimic and control expected and unexpected parameters in an electrical grid. The invention provides grid simulation in a manner to allow improved testing of variable power generators, such as wind turbines, and their operation once interconnected with an electrical grid in multiple countries. The system further comprises an improved variable fault reactance (reactive divider) capable of providing a variable fault reactance power output to control a voltage profile, therein creating an arbitrary recovery voltage. The system further comprises an improved isolation transformer designed to isolate zero-sequence current from either a primary or secondary winding in a transformer or pass the zero-sequence current from a primary to a secondary winding.
Improving the predictability and reliability of wind power generation and operations will reduce costs and potentially establish a framework to attract new capital into the distributed wind sector, a key cost reduction requirement highlighted in results from the distributed wind future market assessment conducted with dWind. Quantifying and refining the accuracy of project performance estimates will also directly address several of the key challenges identified by industry stakeholders in 2015 as part of the distributed wind resource assessment workshop and be cross-cutting for several other facets of the distributed wind portfolio. This presentation covers the efforts undertaken in 2016 to address these topics.