U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

Utility Representatives

Feed-in Tariff Policy: Design, Implementation, and RPS Policy Interactions

This report explores the design and implementation of feed-in tariff policies, including a policy definition, various payment structures, and payment differentiation options. The report also discusses the interaction between FIT and RPS policies.

The Impacts of Commercial Electric Utility Rate Structure Elements on the Economics of Photovoltaic Systems

This analysis uses simulated building data, simulated solar photovoltaic (PV) data, and actual electric utility tariff data from 25 cities to better understand the impacts of different commercial rate structures on the value of solar PV systems. By analyzing and comparing 55 unique rate structures across the United States, this study seeks to identify the rate components that have the greatest effect on the value of PV systems.

Interconnecting PV on NYC's Secondary Network Distribution System

To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report.

New York, New York
United States

Power Purchase Agreement Checklist for State and Local Governments

This fact sheet addresses the financial, logistical, and legal questions relevant to implementing PPAs for PV installations.

Net Metering Model Rules, 2009 Edition

These model net metering rules incorporate updated lessons learned and best practices since IREC's first release in 2003. Among the important advances in net metering rules incorporated within the model IREC rule are: increase in the size of systems eligible for net metering, expansion of program capacity caps, meter aggregation, and accommodation of third-party ownership of net metered systems.

Community Renewables: Model Program Rules

The Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has worked closely with The Vote Solar Initiative to develop model program rules for community-scale renewables that consider many of the basic issues facing community renewables programs. IREC’s model program rules address such issues as renewable system size, interconnection, eligibility for participation, allocation of the benefits flowing from participation, net metering of system production, and other essential features of a community renewables program.

The Intersection of Net Metering and Retail Choice: An Overview of Policy, Practice and Issues

In this report, the authors studied different facets of crediting mechanisms, and defined five different theoretical models describing different ways competitive suppliers and utilities provide net metering options for their customers. They then provided case studies to illustrate the models.

The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

To achieve a sizable and self-sustaining market for grid-connected, customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems, solar will likely need to be competitive with retail electricity rates. In this report, we examine the impact of retail rate design on the economic value of commercial PV systems in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial customer retail rates currently offered in the state.

United States

Distributed Renewable Energy Finance and Policy Toolkit

This report describes the many financing options available to state energy offices, municipal governments, and other energy agencies for utilizing public funds for clean energy project support. The report analyzes their strengths and weaknesses and identifies best practices. One key finding is that while each tool has its own strengths and weaknesses, the use of these tools as a portfolio of approaches creates the most robust, effective programs.


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