Boiler Calculator

Determines the amount of fuel energy required to produce steam with specified properties at a given flow rate using general boiler operational characteristics.


Deaerator Pressure* psig
Combustion Efficiency* %
Blowdown Rate* %

Steam

Pressure* psig
* °C btu/lbm kJ/kg/K
Steam Mass Flow * klb/hr
* Required [reset]
Allowed Range / Limits
Minimum
Maximum
**Example: Super-heated Steam

Examples: Mouse Over
Saturated Steam Super-heated Steam

Calculation Details and Assumptions below

Steam

Mass Flow11.4 klb/hr
Pressure109.1 psig Sp. Enthalpy1,655.6 btu/lbm
Temperature667.4 °C Sp. Entropy8.272 kJ/kg/K
PhaseGas Energy Flow19,912
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Boiler

Boiler

Blowdown Rate4.2 %
Boiler Energy17,406
Combustion Efficiency73.0 %
Fuel Energy23,844

Blowdown

Mass Flow0.5 klb/hr
Pressure109.1 psig Sp. Enthalpy315.1 btu/lbm
Temperature173.1 °C Sp. Entropy2.073 kJ/kg/K
Saturated0.00 Energy Flow166

Feedwater

Mass Flow11.9 klb/hr
Pressure12.3 psig Sp. Enthalpy212.9 btu/lbm
Temperature118.0 °C Sp. Entropy1.506 kJ/kg/K
Saturated0.00 Energy Flow2,672


Calculation Details

Step 1: Determine Properties of Steam Produced

Using the Steam Property Calculator, properties are determined using Steam Pressure and the selected second parameter (Temperature, Specific Enthalpy, Specific Entropy, or Quality). The Specific Enthalpy is then multiplied by the Mass Flow to get the Energy Flow:
  • Steam Energy Flow = Specific Enthalpy * Mass Flow
    [ Steam Energy Flow = 19,912 = 1,655.6 btu/lbm * 11.4 klb/hr ]

Step 2: Determine Feedwater Properties and Mass Flow

The feedwater flow rate can be calculated from steam mass flow and blowdown rate:
  1. Blowdown Mass Flow = Feedwater Mass Flow * Blowdown Rate
  2. Steam Mass Flow = Feedwater Mass Flow - Blowdown Mass Flow
  3. Steam Mass Flow = Feedwater Mass Flow - Feedwater Mass Flow * Blowdown Rate
  4. Feedwater Mass Flow = Steam Mass Flow / [ 1 - Blowdown Rate ]
    [ Feedwater Mass Flow = 11.9 klb/hr = 11.4 klb/hr / ( 1 - 0.042 ) ]
Using the Steam Property Calculator, properties are determined using Deaerator Pressure and Quality = 0 (Saturated Liquid). The Specific Enthalpy is then multiplied by the Mass Flow to get the Energy Flow:
  • Feedwater Energy Flow = Specific Enthalpy * Mass Flow
    [ Feedwater Energy Flow = 2,672 = 212.9 btu/lbm * 11.9 klb/hr ]

Step 3: Determine Blowdown Properties and Mass Flow

Using the calculated feedwater mass flow and blowdown rate:
  • Blowdown Mass Flow = Feedwater Mass Flow * Blowdown Rate
    [ Blowdown Mass Flow = 0.5 klb/hr = 11.9 klb/hr * 0.042 ]
Using the Steam Property Calculator, properties are determined using Steam Pressure and Quality = 0 (Saturated Liquid). The Specific Enthalpy is then multiplied by the Mass Flow to get the Energy Flow:
  • Blowdown Energy Flow = Specific Enthalpy * Mass Flow
    [ Blowdown Energy Flow = 166 = 315.1 btu/lbm * 0.5 klb/hr ]

Step 4: Determine Boiler Energy

  • Boiler Energy = Steam Energy Flow + Blowdown Energy Flow - Feedwater Energy Flow
    [ Boiler Energy (Flow) = 17,406 = 19,912 + 166 - 2,672 ]

Step 5: Determine Fuel Energy

  • Fuel Energy = Boiler Energy / Combustion Efficiency
    [ Fuel Energy = 23,844 = 17,406 / 0.73 ]

Assumptions

  • Deaerator provides feedwater near the boiling temperature for the deaerator's set operating pressure. (Saturated Liquid)
  • Steam, Boiler, and Blowdown Pressure are the same.
  • Combustion Efficiency is the % of fuel energy that is directly added to the feedwater and not otherwise lost or used.
  • Blowdown Rate is the % of incoming feedwater mass flow rate that leaves the boiler as a saturated liquid at boiler pressure.
  • Does not include any evaluation of any complex boiler configurations or fluctuations in operation.
  • Energy from motors (pumps, fans, etc.) are not considered.
  • Boiler and fuel types are not considered.